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Omics Technologies in Veterinary Medicine: Literature Review and Perspectives in Transfusion Medicine

  • Miglio, Arianna
  • Cremonini, Valentina
  • Leonardi, Leonardo
  • Manuali, Elisabetta
  • Coliolo, Paola
  • Barbato, Olimpia
  • Dall’Aglioa, Cecilia
  • Antognoni, Maria Teresa
Published Article
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
May 25, 2023
DOI: 10.1159/000530870
PMCID: PMC10319093
  • Review Article
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Background: Omics technologies represent a new analytical approach that allows a full cellular readout through the simultaneous analysis of thousands of molecules. The application of such technologies represents a flourishing field of research in human medicine, especially in transfusion medicine, while their application in veterinary medicine still needs to be developed. Summary: Omics technologies, especially proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics, are currently applied in several fields of human medicine. In transfusion medicine, the creation and integration of multiomics datasets have uncovered intricate molecular pathways occurring within blood bags during storage. In particular, the research has been directed toward the study of storage lesions (SLs), i.e., those biochemical and structural changes that red blood cells (RBCs) undergo during hypothermic storage, their causes, and the development of new strategies to prevent them. However, due to their challenges to perform and high costs, these technologies are hardly accessible to veterinary research, where their application dates back only to the last few years and thus a great deal of progress still needs to be made. As regards veterinary medicine, there are only a few studies that have focused mainly on fields such as oncology, nutrition, cardiology, and nephrology. Other studies have suggested omics datasets that provide important insights for future comparative investigations between human and nonhuman species. Regarding the study of storage lesions and, more generally, the veterinary transfusion field, there is a marked lack of available omics data and results with relevance for clinical practice. Key Messages: The use of omics technologies in human medicine is well established and has led to promising results in blood transfusion and related practices knowledge. Transfusion practice is a burgeoning field in veterinary medicine, but, to date, there are no species-specific procedures and techniques for the collection and storage of blood units and those validated in the human species are univocally pursued. Multiomics analysis of the species-specific RBCs’ biological characteristics could provide promising results both from a comparative perspective, by increasing our understanding of species suitable to be used as animal models, and in a strictly veterinary view, by contributing to the development of animal-targeted procedures.

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