Elimination of cerebellar granule cells early during postnatal development produces abnormal neural organization that retains immature characteristics in the adult, including innervation of each Purkinje cell by multiple climbing fibers from the inferior olive. To elucidate mechanisms underlying development of the olivocerebellar projection, we studied light-microscopic morphology of single olivocerebellar axons labeled with biotinylated dextran amine in adult rats rendered agranular by a single postnatal X-irradiation. Each reconstructed olivocerebellar axon gave off approximately 12 climbing fibers, approximately twice as many as in normal rats. Terminal arborizations of climbing fibers made irregular tufts in most areas, whereas they were arranged vertically in a few mildly affected areas. Each climbing fiber terminal arborization innervated only part of the dendritic arbor of a Purkinje cell, and multiple climbing fibers innervated a single Purkinje cell. These climbing fibers originated either from the same olivocerebellar axon (pseudomultiple innervation) or from distinct axons (true multiple innervation). Abundant non-climbing fiber thin collaterals projected to all cortical layers. Although the longitudinal pattern of the zonal olivocerebellar projection was generally observed, lateral branching, including bilateral projections, was relatively frequent. These results suggest that the granule cell-parallel fiber system induces several important features of olivocerebellar projection: (1) organization of the climbing fiber terminal arborization tightly surrounding Purkinje cell dendrites, (2) elimination of pseudo- and true multiple innervations establishing one-to-one innervation, (3) retraction of non-climbing fiber thin collaterals from the molecular layer, and (4) probable refinement of the longitudinal projection domains by removing aberrant transverse branches.