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Older Adults Hospitalized with Covid-19: Clinical Characteristics and Early Outcomes from a Single Center in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors
  • Medetalibeyoglu, A.1
  • Senkal, N.1
  • Kose, M.1
  • Catma, Y.1
  • Caparali, E. Bilge1
  • Erelel, M.1
  • Oncul, M. Oral1
  • Bahat, Gulistan1
  • Tukek, T.1
  • 1 Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey , Istanbul (Turkey)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The journal of nutrition health & aging
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2020
Volume
24
Issue
9
Pages
928–937
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12603-020-1499-9
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

ObjectiveOlder adults have been continuously reported to be at higher risk for adverse outcomes of Covid-19. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and early outcomes of the older Covid-19 patients hospitalized in our center comparatively with the younger patients, and also to analyze the triage factors that were related to the in-hospital mortality of older adults.DesignRetrospective; observational study.SettingIstanbul Faculty of Medicine hospital, Turkey.Participants362 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from March 11 to May 11, 2020.MeasurementsThe demographic information; associated comorbidities; presenting clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics on admission and outcomes from the electronic medical records were analyzed comparatively between the younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) adults. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality of the older adults were analyzed by multivariate regression analyses.ResultsThe median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46–67), and 224 (61.9%) were male. There were 104 (28.7%) patients ≥65 years of age. More than half of the patients (58%) had one or more chronic comorbidity. The three most common presenting symptoms in the older patients were fatigue/myalgia (89.4%), dry cough (72.1%), and fever (63.5%). Cough and fever were significantly less prevalent in older adults compared to younger patients (p=0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Clinically severe pneumonia was present in 31.5% of the study population being more common in older adults (49% vs. 24.4%) (p<0.001). The laboratory parameters that were significantly different between the older and younger adults were as follows: the older patients had significantly higher CRP, D-dimer, TnT, pro-BNP, procalcitonin levels, higher prevalence of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, increased creatinine, and lower hemoglobin, ALT, albumin level (p<0.05). In the radiological evaluation, more than half of the patients (54.6%) had moderate-severe pneumonia, which was more prevalent in older patients (66% vs. 50%) (p=0.006). The adverse outcomes were significantly more prevalent in older adults compared to the younger patients (ICU admission, 28.8% vs. 8.9%; mortality, 23.1% vs. 4.3%, p<0.001). Among the triage evaluation parameters, the only factor associated with higher mortality was the presence of clinically severe pneumonia on admission (Odds Ratio=12.3, 95% confidence interval=2.7–55.5, p=0.001).ConclusionOlder patients presented with more prevalent chronic comorbidities, less prevalent symptomatology but more severe respiratory signs and laboratory abnormalities than the younger patients. Among the triage assessment factors, the clinical evaluation of pulmonary involvement came in front to help clinicians to stratify the patients for mortality risk.

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