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Older Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19: Clinical Characteristics and Early Outcomes from a Single Center in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors
  • Medetalibeyoglu, A.1
  • Senkal, N.1
  • Kose, M.1
  • Catma, Y.1
  • Bilge Caparali, E.1
  • Erelel, M.1
  • Oral Oncul, M.1
  • Bahat, Gulistan1, 2
  • Tukek, T.1
  • 1 Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine,
  • 2 Istanbul Universitesi Istanbul Tip Fakultesi,
Type
Published Article
Journal
The journal of nutrition health & aging
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Oct 08, 2020
Pages
1–10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12603-020-1477-2
PMCID: PMC7543034
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Objective Older adults have been continuously reported to be at higher risk for adverse outcomes of Covid-19. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and early outcomes of the older Covid-19 patients hospitalized in our center comparatively with the younger patients, and also to analyze the triage factors that were related to the in-hospital mortality of older adults. Design Retrospective; observational study. Setting Istanbul Faculty of Medicine hospital, Turkey. Participants 362 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from March 11 to May 11, 2020. Measurements The demographic information; associated comorbidities; presenting clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics on admission and outcomes from the electronic medical records were analyzed comparatively between the younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) adults. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality of the older adults were analyzed by multivariate regression analyses. Results The median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46–67), and 224 (61.9%) were male. There were 104 (28.7%) patients ≥65 years of age. More than half of the patients (58%) had one or more chronic comorbidity. The three most common presenting symptoms in the older patients were fatigue/myalgia (89.4%), dry cough (72.1%), and fever (63.5%). Cough and fever were significantly less prevalent in older adults compared to younger patients (p=0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Clinically severe pneumonia was present in 31.5% of the study population being more common in older adults (49% vs. 24.4%) (p<0.001). The laboratory parameters that were significantly different between the older and younger adults were as follows: the older patients had significantly higher CRP, D-dimer, TnT, pro-BNP, procalcitonin levels, higher prevalence of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, increased creatinine, and lower hemoglobin, ALT, albumin level (p<0.05). In the radiological evaluation, more than half of the patients (54.6%) had moderate-severe pneumonia, which was more prevalent in older patients (66% vs. 50%) (p=0.006). The adverse outcomes were significantly more prevalent in older adults compared to the younger patients (ICU admission, 28.8% vs. 8.9%; mortality, 23.1% vs. 4.3%, p<0.001). Among the triage evaluation parameters, the only factor associated with higher mortality was the presence of clinically severe pneumonia on admission (Odds Ratio=12.3, 95% confidence interval=2.7–55.5, p=0.001). Conclusion Older patients presented with more prevalent chronic comorbidities, less prevalent symptomatology but more severe respiratory signs and laboratory abnormalities than the younger patients. Among the triage assessment factors, the clinical evaluation of pulmonary involvement came in front to help clinicians to stratify the patients for mortality risk.

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