Cereals are consumed in our alimentation through different forms. Between the harvesting in fields and the human/livestock consumption, cereals can be stocked for long months in silos. During this period, these cereals are potential food resources for many insects (S. granarius, O. surinamensis, R. dominica, …) that can cause 10-30% losses in silos. On a global scale, it concerns millions of tons of cereal per year. Consequently, many insecticides have been developed on the market to overcome this issue. Even if current molecules are less toxic than before, the residues that are present are a major challenge for public and animal health, as well as for environment. The OILPROTECT project takes place in this context by trying to find a less toxic alternative to current insecticides. Plants have developed natural defence mechanisms and specific compounds against pests in the course of their evolution. These compounds have the particularity of being non-toxic for vertebrate considering the recommended use dose and are often present in our food condiments. The main goal of this project is to formulate an efficient and natural insecticide with different essential oils and to obtain a residue-free product on grain. In that context, essential oils were chemically characterized and their toxicities were determined. Then, an in-depth study of cereal silos eco-systems was carried out in the lab to determine the potential protection of this kind of treatment with plant extracts.