PurposeTo analyze corneal and total aberrations using custom-developed anterior segment spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser ray tracing in keratoconic eyes implanted with intracorneal ring segments (ICRS). DesignEvaluation of technology. Prospective study. Case series. MethodsNineteen keratoconic eyes were measured before and after ICRS surgery. Anterior and posterior corneal topographic and pachymetric maps were obtained pre- and postoperatively from 3-dimensional OCT images of the anterior segment, following automatic image analysis and distortion correction. The pupil center coordinates were used as reference for estimation of corneal aberrations. Corneal aberrations were estimated by computational ray tracing on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Total aberrations were measured using a custom-developed laser ray tracing aberrometer. Corneal and total aberrations were compared in 8 eyes pre- and postoperatively for 4-mm pupils. ResultsTotal and corneal aberrations were highly correlated. Average root mean square of corneal and total high-order aberrations (HOAs) were 0.78 ± 0.35 μm and 0.57 ± 0.39 μm preoperatively, and 0.88 ± 0.36 μm and 0.53 ± 0.24 μm postoperatively (4-mm pupils). The anterior corneal surface aberrations were partially compensated by the posterior corneal surface aberrations (by 8.3% preoperatively and 4.1% postoperatively). Astigmatism was 2.03 ± 1.11 μm preoperatively and 1.60 ± 0.94 μm postoperatively. The dominant HOA aberrations both pre- and postoperatively were vertical coma (Z3−1), vertical trefoil (Z3−3), and secondary astigmatism (Z44). ICRS decreased corneal astigmatism by 27% and corneal coma by 5%, but on average, the overall amount of HOA did not decrease significantly with ICRS treatment. ConclusionsOCT is a reproducible technique to evaluate corneal aberrations. OCT-based corneal aberrations and ocular aberrations show a high correspondence in keratoconic patients before and after ICRS implantation. ICRS produced a decrease in astigmatism, but on average did not produce a consistent decrease of HOAs.