During the past year, there has been increased understanding of the ocular manifestations of various cardiovascular and hematologic disorders. Carotid and vertebral artery lesions may lead to significant and varied ophthalmic pathology. Disorders of blood pressure may influence the intraocular pressure and play a role in the progression of glaucoma. Cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, may also play a role in the development of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Several cardiac anomalies as well as the cardiac use of streptokinase have been reported to have secondary ocular involvement. Both benign and malignant hematologic disorders may result in serious ocular morbidity. Recent publications have focused on the secondary ophthalmic complications from the hemoglobinopathies, problems with blood viscosity, the lymphomas, the leukemias, and bone marrow transplantation.