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Occurrence and pathology of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds

Authors
  • Li, S.-J.1
  • Njumbe Ediage, E.2
  • De Saeger, S.2
  • Van Waeyenberghe, L.1
  • Garmyn, A.1
  • Verlinden, M.1
  • Ducatelle, R.1
  • Croubels, S.3
  • Haesebrouck, F.1
  • Pasmans, F.1
  • Martel, A.1
  • 1 Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • 2 Department of Bio-analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
  • 3 Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Type
Published Article
Journal
World Mycotoxin Journal
Publisher
Wageningen Academic Publishers
Publication Date
Oct 18, 2013
Volume
6
Issue
4
Pages
449–453
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3920/WMJ2013.1570
Source
Wageningen Academic Publishers
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi. Animal feeds can be easily infected by fungi during production and storage, resulting in mycotoxin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the possible health risks of mycotoxin-contaminated feed for cockatiels. The occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds (5 seed mixes and 5 pelleted feeds) was investigated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The following 12 mycotoxins were detected: zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, alternariol, alternariol methylether, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B3, and ochratoxin A. Zearalenone was the most prevalent. Pathological effects after 21 days feeding mycotoxin-contaminated diets were examined in an in vivo trial with 3 groups of 5 cockatiels: group 1 (control) was fed a non-contaminated pelleted feed; group 2 was fed a pelleted feed containing zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and fumonisins; and group 3 was fed a pelleted feed containing fumonisins. Average body weight gain and relative organ weight were not significantly different between the treatment groups and the control group. Apoptosis of renal tubular cells, diarrhoea, reduced appetite, enlargement of liver, kidney and proventriculus were occasionally observed in the birds from groups 2 and 3. In summary, contamination with mycotoxins is common in parrot feeds. The mycotoxin levels did not reach toxic levels, but might pose a potential threat to some sensitive cockatiels.

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