ObjectiveAnti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 antibodies (anti-CCP2) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been extensively assessed in industrialized countries. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic impact of anti-CCP2 and RF isotypes in a Sudanese cross-sectional RA cohort.MethodsConsecutive RA patients (n = 281) diagnosed according to the 1987 ACR criteria were included 2008–2010. Anti-CCP2 and RF isotypes (IgA, IgM, and IgG) were measured by enzyme immunoassay in 262 patients, with reference intervals aligned to the same diagnostic specificity as for anti-CCP2 (97.6%) using national controls.ResultsIgA RF was the predominant RA-associated autoantibody (56%), followed by IgM RF and anti-CCP2 (both 52%) and IgG RF (49%). In receiver operator characteristic analysis, IgA RF also showed the largest area under the curve. Patients with IgG RF were younger and had 8 years lower median age of disease onset compared to antibody negative patients (p < 0.0001). IgG RF was the only marker associated with a high number of involved joints (p = 0.028), and together with anti-CCP2 were the strongest markers for finger deformities (p = 0.016 and p = 0.012), respectively. No statistical differences were found for disease duration, ESR and Hb levels, and occurrence of erosions/osteopenia for any of the investigated autoantibodies.ConclusionWhereas IgA RF showed the best diagnostic performance, IgG RF associated with low age of RA onset, high number of involved joints, and finger deformities. These findings indicate that RA-associated antibodies other than conventional IgM RF and anti-CCP2 might be informative in non-Caucasian RA populations.