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Occupational Rhinitis: Classification, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics

Authors
  • Shao, Zhisheng1
  • Bernstein, Jonathan A.2, 3
  • 1 Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA , Philadelphia (United States)
  • 2 Bernstein Allergy Group, 8444 Winton Road, Cincinnati, OH, 45231, USA , Cincinnati (United States)
  • 3 University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, ML0563, Cincinnati, OH, 45267, USA , Cincinnati (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Nov 27, 2019
Volume
19
Issue
12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11882-019-0892-0
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Purpose of ReviewOccupational rhinitis (OR), an inflammatory disease of the nose, refers to any nasal symptoms reported to be work-related. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of OR.Recent FindingsOccupational rhinitis (OR) can further be classified into allergic or non-allergic depending on the causative agent(s) and pathogenesis. Presenting symptoms are similar to non-OR including nasal congestion, anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching. Despite its high prevalence in a spectrum of workplaces, OR is under reported as it is often considered a nuisance rather than a potential precursor to occupational asthma (OA). The diagnosis of OR is obfuscated as it is difficult to determine if this condition was caused by environmental determinants in or outside the workplace. Furthermore, workers may have a pre-existing history of allergic or non-allergic rhinitis leading the clinician and worker to overlook inciting agents in the workplace. In this case, a diagnosis of OR is still possible depending on the exposures but must be differentiated from work-exacerbated rhinitis. Further complicating the diagnosis of OR is the lack of evidence-based research focused on this condition as it is often trivialized due to the perception that it has an insignificant impact on the worker’s health. The reality is that OR can have a significant impact on the worker’s quality of life and is associated with a number of comorbidities including occupational asthma, recurrent sinusitis, headaches, eustachian tube dysfunction, and sleep disorders similar to non-occupational rhinitis. However, one significant difference between these disorders is that workers diagnosed with OR are eligible for worker’s compensation. Treatment of OR involves avoidance of the inciting agent(s) and medications similar to those used to treat non-OR conditions.SummaryThis review summarizes recent progresses on the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy of OR. In addition, suggested areas of further research with potential targets for modifications in the workplace environment as well as therapeutic interventions will be discussed.

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