The procedure of obtaining DNA-containing cell envelopes ("micromummies") of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi using chaotropic salts has been developed previously and the possibility of their direct application in PCR has been demonstrated. The fine structure of micromummies has been studied by electron microscopic methods. This work has demonstrated that additional treatment of micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with proteinase K results in hydrolytic degradation of cell proteins and drastic enhancement of cell wall permeability for macromolecules (DNA). Thus, the efficiency of PCR ex situ using resultant micromummies after washing off the products of protein hydrolysis and proteinase K can be increased. The results of electron microscopic study of ultrathin sections of yeasts (Pichia pastoris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Arthrobacter globiformis, Bacillus subtilis) support the biochemical data that treatment with chaotropic salts and proteinase K results in the loosening of microbial cell walls and in a decrease in the intracellular protein content. At the same time, cell walls generally maintain their integrity (continuity) and initial spherical or rodlike shape. The optimal modes of treatment of the cells of different microbial species with chaotropic salts and proteinase K have been selected to obtain permeabilized cell envelopes containing denatured or native DNA.