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O processo de liderança em contexto espiritualizado

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This work intended to study how the process of leadership in knowledge intensive firms within a spiritualized context happens. In this research, I consider school as being a knowledge intensive firm, since their activities access knowledge, besides having a final product that is based on knowledge as well. I reviewed the literature using different search strategies in national and international databases. In national data bases, I used three strategies with the following descriptors: leadership, spirituality and KIF; leadership and KIF or school; leadership and spirituality. In international databases, I used four search strategies with the English key-words 'leadership', 'spirituality' and 'KIF'. In the literature, I found a few works that relate leadership with spirituality and schools. These works deal with an approach that focuses on the individual. In other words, this approach focuses on the leader, which suggests that the spirituality is based on the leader's values. With this search strategy, I found out that the approach of distributed leadership at schools, as proposed by Gronn (2002) and Spillane (2005). The works about leadership in KIF also revealed leader-centered perspectives by analyzing its challenges and characteristics in a KIF. Finally, I found Fry's studies (2003) in works about leadership and spirituality, which deal with the spiritual leadership proposal and relate to the main works that connect two key words. However, his model of spiritual leadership is based on a perspective of cause and consequence, which interest is stablishing the correlations between the model elements. This proposal is strongly related to the leader-follower relationship and, thus, it does not clarify how to study the process of leadership in the organizational context. Therefore, I had to look for a leadership processual approach and a way of analyzing the spiritual context of a KIF. In one hand, I found the relational leadership that considers the leadership as a socially built process. In other hand, I found the studies of spirituality in organizations that also underpins the spiritual leadership proposal. With this theoretical base, I went to the research field with the ethnographic methods. I conducted the research at Waldorf Anabá School, in Florianópolis, from July to December 2014. In this study, I used the participant observation technique, documental analyses and ethnographic interviews. I interviewed 33 people: professors, secretaries, librarians, managers and parents. I transcribed all the interviews and analyzed the database in thematic analysis as proposed by Braun and Clarke (2006). From the data collected in the field, I set the codes, and then I classified them according to themes. From the results, I concluded that the leadership process approach as elaborated in the literature based on relational leadership was not enough to understand Anabá's organizational reality. The first one occurs in the relations of influence and power, which are distributed in the contexts that compose its organizational structure, which allows fluidity to this model from which leadership emerges. The second one occurs in the social influence relationships, which are built among people from school. Thus, the process involves the distributed and the relational leadership approach. In addition, Anaba's leadership process a conjunct of three elements that influence the way the leadership emerges, which I call influencing elements: experience, knowledge and feeling. Through these elements, people influence others and are influenced in the decision-making process and leadership. Finally, I observed that the leadership process is influenced by Anaba's spiritualized context. It is based on anthroposophy and is characterized by spiritual values expressed by people who seek their self-development, who find meaning in the school work and have a sense of belonging to a community. This spiritualized context influences the process of leadership by building and open and free space, and by giving room to the emergence of leaders and favoring the development of a power relationship web between the parts.


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