Four patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma were treated with standard doses of o,p'-DDD. Plasma levels of o,p'-DDD and its metabolites o,p'-DDA and o,p'-DDE were measured. o,p'-DDD was measurable for up to 8 months after stopping therapy, and trace levels of metabolites were detectable at 18 months. Although 2 of 3 patients with measurable disease had objective tumor response and one patient achieved a complete response, severe drug toxicity occurred in all patients and signs of adrenal insufficiency occurred in three. Low dose therapy with o,p'-DDD is suggested, together with full gluco and mineralocorticoid replacement. Measurement of o,p'-DDD and its metabolites in plasma may prove clinically useful in developing effective but less toxic dosage schedules.