Mangrove sediments represent unique microbial ecosystems that act as a buffer zone, biogeochemically recycling marine waste into nutrient-rich depositions for marine and terrestrial species. Marine unicellular protists, thraustochytrids, colonizing mangrove sediments have received attention due to their ability to produce large amounts of long-chain ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. This paper represents a comprehensive study of two new thraustochytrids for their production of valuable biomolecules in biomass, de-oiled cakes, supernatants, extracellular polysaccharide matrixes, and recovered oil bodies. Extracted lipids (up to 40% of DW) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (up to 80% of total fatty acids) were mainly represented by docosahexaenoic acid (75% of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Cells also showed accumulation of squalene (up to 13 mg/g DW) and carotenoids (up to 72 µg/g DW represented by astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone, and β-carotene). Both strains showed a high concentration of protein in biomass (29% DW) and supernatants (2.7 g/L) as part of extracellular polysaccharide matrixes. Alkalinization of collected biomass represents a new and easy way to recover lipid-rich oil bodies in the form of an aqueous emulsion. The ability to produce added-value molecules makes thraustochytrids an important alternative to microalgae and plants dominating in the food, pharmacological, nutraceutical, and cosmetics industries.