Gut microbiota (GM) located within the intestinal tract lumen comprises the largest number of cells (10E14) in the human body. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of genomes and genes present in gut microbiota. GM can vary according to age, sex, genetic background, immune status, geography, diet, prebiotics, which are non-digestible fibers metabolized in the distal part of the gastrointestinal tract, probiotics, which are micro-organisms conferring a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts, living conditions, diseases and drugs. A source of probiotics is fortified fermented dairy products, which in addition provide calcium, protein, phosphorus and various micronutrients. Bone homeostasis is influenced by GM composition and/or products. GM appears to be a major player in the various determinants of bone health. However, it remains to be demonstrated in well conducted long-term randomized controlled trials, whether interventions changing GM composition and/or function are capable of reducing fracture risk.