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Nutritional Effects of Zinc on Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: Mechanisms and Main Findings in Human Studies

Authors
  • Ruz, Manuel
  • Carrasco, Fernando
  • Rojas, Pamela
  • Basfi-fer, Karen
  • Hernández, Maria Catalina
  • Pérez, Alvaro
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biological Trace Element Research
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jan 02, 2019
Volume
188
Issue
1
Pages
177–188
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12011-018-1611-8
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Zinc (Zn) plays crucial roles in mammalian metabolism. There is increasing interest about the potential beneficial effects of Zn on the prevention or treatment of non-communicable diseases. This review critically analyzes the information related to the role of Zn on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D), and summarizes the biological basis of these potential effects of Zn. There are several mechanisms by which Zn may help to prevent the development or progression of MetS and T2D, respectively. Zn is involved in both insulin secretion and action in peripheral tissues. Specifically, Zn has insulin-mimetic properties that increase the activity of the insulin signaling pathway. Zn modulates long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids levels through its action on the absorption of essential fatty acids in the intestine and its subsequent desaturation. Zn is also involved in both the assembly of chylomicrons and lipoproteins as well as their clearance, and thus, plays a role in lipolysis regulation. Finally, Zn has been found to play a role in redox metabolism, and in turn, on blood pressure. The evidence related to the association between Zn status and occurrence of MetS is inconsistent. Although there are several studies reporting an inverse relationship between Zn status or dietary Zn intake and MetS prevalence, others found a direct relationship between Zn status and MetS prevalence. Intervention studies also provide confusing information about this issue, making it hard to reach firm conclusions. Zn as part of the treatment for patients with T2D has been shown to have positive responses in terms of glucose control outcomes, but only among those with Zn deficiency.

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