The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different artificial diets, in which sucrose and brewer's yeast were offered separately (food-pair treatment) or mixed (single-food treatment), on the regulation of nutrient ingestion and the performance of wild adult females of Anastrepha obliqua. The amount of diet consumed by females of A. obliqua increased as the concentration of yeast in the diet increased, revealing a phagostimulant effect of yeast. The amount of sucrose ingested was constant in all groups, showing that these flies regulate the ingestion of sucrose. Longevity and production of eggs/female were similar in both groups. Our results suggest that A. obliqua females regulate the ingestion of nutrients to obtain an adequate performance. Dietary self-selective behavior was more efficient for the females of A. obliqua than feeding on a single-food, because the self-selecting flies ingested less food and had a similar performance as the ones fed on the single-food treatment.