Nutrition and cancer interact at several levels. Both dietary deficiencies and dietary excesses have been linked with changes in prevalence of certain human cancers. With respect to one particular nutrient, riboflavin, a dietary deficiency may decrease the development of spontaneous tumors in experimental animals but increase carcinogenesis due to certain agents. Cancer itself has profound effects upon nutritional status, and neoplastic tissue appears in general to resist dietary deficiency more effectively than normal tissues. Nutrition has a major role in therapy of cancer, but as an adjunct to the treatment plan rather than as an alternative. Parenteral nutrition, either peripheral or total, can provide support that is critically needed when patients cannot eat or swallow, have obstruction or malabsorption, or are otherwise unable to utilize dietary nutrients in adequate amounts. The advent of home parenteral nutrition now provides a means for long-term rehabilitation of cancer patients.