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Nutrients and Nutraceuticals for the Management of High Normal Blood Pressure: An Evidence-Based Consensus Document

Authors
  • Cicero, Arrigo F. G.1
  • Grassi, Davide2
  • Tocci, Giuliano3, 4
  • Galletti, Ferruccio5
  • Borghi, Claudio1
  • Ferri, Claudio2
  • 1 U.O. Medicina Interna Borghi, Medical and Surgical Sciences Dept, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Albertoni, 15, Bologna, 40138, Italy , Bologna (Italy)
  • 2 University of L’Aquila, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, Coppito, L’Aquila, Italy , L’Aquila (Italy)
  • 3 University of Rome Sapienza, Division of Cardiology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 4 IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS, Italy , Pozzilli (Italy)
  • 5 University of Naples Medical School, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, ESH Excellence Center of Hypertension, “Federico II”, Via S. Pansini, 5, Naples, 80131, Italy , Naples (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jan 22, 2019
Volume
26
Issue
1
Pages
9–25
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s40292-018-0296-6
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Essential hypertension still represents the most common cardiovascular risk factor, which is responsible for the vast majority of global burden of disease, worldwide. Antihypertensive treatment aimed at lowering blood pressure (BP) levels to the recommended therapeutic targets has demonstrated to reduce risk of developing major cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. Despite these evidence, overall rates of BP control are dramatically low in most European and Western countries, as well as in the so called developing countries, thus contributing to the increasingly amount of hypertension-related costs and disabilities. For these reasons, preventive strategies aimed at improving BP control rates in treated hypertensive patients and reducing high-normal BP levels in asymptomatic otherwise healthy individuals may contribute to reduce the burden of disease related to hypertension. In this view, an extensive use of nutrients and nutraceuticals has demonstrated to provide favorable effects in hypertension management and control, beyond the adoption of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. These interventions can effectively and safely reduce BP levels to targets and prevent disease progression form high-normal BP levels towards stage 1 hypertension. The present consensus document will systematically describe and critically analyze the currently available evidence in favor of the use of nutrients and nutraceuticals in those individuals with high-normal BP levels at different cardiovascular risk profile.

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