The Reeler heterozygous mice (reln(+/-)) are haplodeficient in the gene (reln) encoding for the reelin glycoprotein (RELN) and display reductions in brain/peripheral RELN similar to autistic or schizophrenic patients. Cytoarchitectonic alterations of the reln(+/-) brain may be subtle, and are difficult to demonstrate by current histological approaches. We analyzed the number and topological organization of the Purkinje neurons (PNs) in five vermal lobules - central (II-III), culmen (IV-V), tuber (VIIb), uvula (IX), and nodulus (X) - that process different types of afferent functional inputs in reln(+/+) and reln(+/-) adult mice (P60) of both sexes (n=24). Animals were crossed with L7GFP mice so that the GFP-tagged PNs could be directly identified in cryosections. Digital images from these sections were processed with different open source software for quantitative topological and statistical analyses. Diversity indices calculated were: maximum caliper, density, area of soma, dispersion along the XZ axis, and dispersion along the YZ axis. We demonstrate: i. reduction in density of PNs in reln(+/-) males (14.37%) and reln(+/-) females (17.73%) compared to reln(+/+) males; ii. that reln(+/-) males have larger PNs than other genotypes, and females (irrespective of the reln genetic background) have smaller PNs than reln(+/+) males; iii. PNs are more chaotically arranged along the YZ axis in reln(+/-) males than in reln(+/+) males and, except in central lobulus, reln(+/-) females. Therefore, image processing and statistics reveal previously unforeseen gender and genotype-related structural differences in cerebellum that may be clues for the definition of novel biomarkers in human psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.