Aims: Adalimumab, infliximab, and ustekinumab have been approved for patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in Japan. This study compared the relative efficacy and cost-effectiveness of adalimumab, infliximab, and ustekinumab in patients with Crohn's disease based on data from randomized controlled trials.Methods: Data were extracted from four phase 3 clinical trials: CHARM, NCT00445432, ACCENT I, and IM-UNITI. A network meta-analysis (NMA) compared 1-year clinical remission rates in patients who responded to treatment during an induction phase. Remission was defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index score <150. The number needed to treat (NNT) was defined as the inverse of the risk reduction (compared with placebo) estimated from the NMA among initial responders. Cost per incremental remitter was calculated based on the projected per patient drug cost (2018 Japanese Yen [¥]) and the NNT.Results: Among initial responders, the remission rates were 45.2%, 31.9%, 27.4%, 24.1%, and 15.6% for adalimumab 40 mg every other week (EOW), infliximab 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks, ustekinumab 90 mg every 8 weeks, ustekinumab 90 mg every 12 weeks, and placebo, respectively. The NNT was the lowest for adalimumab 40 mg EOW. Compared with adalimumab, the incremental cost per remitter was numerically higher for infliximab (¥5,375,470) and statistically higher for ustekinumab 90 mg every 8 weeks and ustekinumab 90 mg every 12 weeks (¥42,788,597 and ¥41,495,543, respectively).Limitations: Indirect comparisons are limited by the availability of suitable clinical evidence and there may be residual heterogeneity that could not be adjusted for.Conclusion: Adalimumab was associated with a numerically lower cost per remitter compared with infliximab and a statistically lower cost per remitter compared with ustekinumab in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in Japan.