1. Given that the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) may regulate the ability of brown adipose tissue to evoke non-shivering thermogenesis and that brown fat may mediate the rise in whole-body metabolism observed following central pyrogen administration, we assessed whether interruption of baroreceptor afferents coursing though the NTS would interfere with the ability of prostaglandin E1 to evoke a normal fever response profile. 2. Infusion of 150-600 ng of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) into a lateral cerebral ventricle of the conscious rat resulted in a rise in core temperature, and also an increase in whole-body metabolic rate, brown adipose tissue temperature, arterial blood pressure and heart rate. 3. Following bilateral electrolytic lesions to the NTS, resting core and brown fat temperatures, metabolic rates, blood pressures and heart rates in the NTS-lesioned animals were comparable to control rats. However, the PGE1-evoked increase in metabolic rate, along with the rise in core and brown adipose tissue temperatures and heart rate were attenuated. The pressor response was, however, enhanced, possibly due to the demonstrated interference by the lesions with normal baroreflex control. 4. The findings suggest that the nucleus tractus solitarii region of the rats' brain may be important in mediating the thermogenesis evoked by central PGE1.