Presently, nuclear power is in focus of the public safety concern and several governments are forced to reconsider its continued role in the national power policy. In this situation it is mandatory for the utilities and the industry to present credible risk management strategies. Development of systematic methods for industrial risk assessment has been advanced through decades in particular within this technological domain. However, the society surrounding the nuclear industry has changed in several respects, being increasingly dynamic and competitive with new trends in legislation and management such as deregulation and pressure toward cost-effectiveness. In this situation, it is necessary to reconsider the basis of risk management strategies and the underlying research.The presentation will give a review of the characteristics of the changing society and the implications for effective risk management. Based in this, some basic problems in the present models of accident causation are described with their influence on risk management strategies. Some critical research problems are identified and illustrated by examples of accidents within shipping, aviation, etc.and parallels drawn to the conditions of nuclear power.