Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases and a total of 1700 different genetic mutations can cause this condition. Patients that suffer this disease have a thickening of the mucus, creating an environment that promotes bacterial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium, which is frequently found in the lungs of CF patients. P. aeruginosa is known for its high level of antibiotic resistance as well as its high rate of mutation that allows it to rapidly evolve and adapt to a multitude of conditions. When a CF lung is infected with P. aeruginosa, the decay of the patient is accelerated, but there is little that can be done apart from controlling the infection with antibiotics. Novel strategies to control P. aeruginosa infection are imperative, and nanotechnology provides novel approaches to drug delivery that are more efficient than classic antibiotic treatments. These drug delivery systems are offering new prospects, especially for these patients with special mucus conditions and bacterial characteristics that limit antibiotic use.