Sickle hemoglobin (Hb S; beta Glu6Val) is due to an A<T transversion in codon 6 of the beta-globin gene. Several Hb S variants have both the Hb S mutation plus another mutation in the same beta-globin gene. Some of these variant hemoglobins can lead to sickle cell disease even in the simple heterozygote. Moreover, some variant hemoglobins mimic Hb A, S, or C on one or several clinical laboratory diagnostic tools, thus making their correct identification potentially problematic. The authors report a novel Hb S variant hemoglobin, Hb S-South End (beta Glu6Val, GAG>GTG; beta Lys132Asn, AAA>AAC). When present alone, the beta Lys132Asn mutation has low oxygen affinity. Therefore, this mutation may enhance the polymerization of the Hb S variant. Furthermore, the variant hemoglobin mimics Hb A on high-pressure liquid chromatography, and its identity is not easily diagnosed. A succinct review of variant sickle hemoglobins is also presented.