Cervical cancer remains the second-most prevalent female malignancy around the world, leading to a great majority of cancer-related mortality that occurs mainly in developing countries. Developing an effective and low-cost vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially in medically underfunded areas, is urgent. Compared with vaccines based on HPV L1 viruslike particles (VLPs) in the market, recombinant HPV L1 pentamer expressed in Escherichia coli represents a promising and potentially cost-effective vaccine for preventing HPV infection. Hybrid particles comprising a polymer core and lipid shell have shown great potential compared to conventional aluminum salts adjuvant and is urgently needed for HPV L1 pentamer vaccines. It is well-reported that particle sizes are crucial in regulating immune responses. Nevertheless, reports on the relationship between the particulate size and the resultant immune response have been in conflict, and there is no answer to how the size of particles regulates specific immune response for HPV L1 pentamer-based candidate vaccines. Here, we fabricated HPV 16 L1 pentamer-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lecithin hybrid particles with uniform sizes (0.3, 1, and 3 mu m) and investigated the particle size effects on antigen release, activation of lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) activation and maturation, follicular helper CD4(+) T (TFH) cells differentiation, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Compared with the other particle sizes, 1 mu m particles induced more powerful antibody protection and yielded more persistent antibody responses, as well as more heightened anamnestic responses upon repeat vaccination. The superior immune responses might be attributed to sustainable antigen release and robust antigen uptake and transport and then further promoted a series of cascade reactions, including enhanced DCs maturation, increased lymphocytes activation, and augmented TFH cells differentiation in draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Here, a powerful and economical platform for HPV vaccine and a comprehensive understanding of particle size effect on immune responses for HPV L1 pentamer-based candidate vaccines are provided.