BackgroundTransient infantile hypertriglyceridemia (HTGTI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) gene.Case presentationWe report a case of HTGTI in a Chinese female infant. She presented with hepatomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, moderately elevated transaminases, and hepatic steatosis at 3.5 months of age. A novel mutation c.523C>T, p. (Q175*) was identified in GPD1. The patient was a homozygote and her parents were heterozygous for the mutation. Ultrastructural study showed intrahepatocytic lipid droplets.ConclusionsThis is the first reported case of HTGTI in Chinese, expanding the worldwide distribution of HTGTI and the mutation spectrum of GPD1.