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Role of Divalent Cations in HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenicity.

Authors
  • Khan, Nabab1
  • Chen, Xuesong1
  • Geiger, Jonathan D1
  • 1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Viruses
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Apr 21, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/v12040471
PMID: 32326317
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Divalent cations are essential for life and are fundamentally important coordinators of cellular metabolism, cell growth, host-pathogen interactions, and cell death. Specifically, for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), divalent cations are required for interactions between viral and host factors that govern HIV-1 replication and pathogenicity. Homeostatic regulation of divalent cations' levels and actions appear to change as HIV-1 infection progresses and as changes occur between HIV-1 and the host. In people living with HIV-1, dietary supplementation with divalent cations may increase HIV-1 replication, whereas cation chelation may suppress HIV-1 replication and decrease disease progression. Here, we review literature on the roles of zinc (Zn2+), iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), magnesium (Mg2+), selenium (Se2+), and copper (Cu2+) in HIV-1 replication and pathogenicity, as well as evidence that divalent cation levels and actions may be targeted therapeutically in people living with HIV-1.

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