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Novel Dormancy Mechanism of Castration Resistance in Bone Metastatic Prostate Cancer Organoids.

Authors
  • Lee, Sanghee
  • Mendoza, Theresa R
  • Burner, Danielle N
  • Muldong, Michelle T
  • Wu, Christina CN
  • Arreola-Villanueva, Catalina
  • Zuniga, Abril
  • Greenburg, Olga
  • Zhu, William Y
  • Murtadha, Jamillah
  • Koutouan, Evodie
  • Pineda, Naomi
  • Pham, Hao
  • Kang, Sung-Gu
  • Kim, Hyun Tae
  • Pineda, Gabriel
  • Lennon, Kathleen M
  • Cacalano, Nicholas A
  • Jamieson, Catriona HM
  • Kane, Christopher J
  • And 3 more
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2022
Source
eScholarship - University of California
Keywords
License
Unknown
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Abstract

Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are treated with androgen pathway directed therapy (APDT). However, this treatment invariably fails and the cancer becomes castration resistant. To elucidate resistance mechanisms and to provide a more predictive pre-clinical research platform reflecting tumor heterogeneity, we established organoids from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of bone metastatic prostate cancer, PCSD1. APDT-resistant PDX-derived organoids (PDOs) emerged when cultured without androgen or with the anti-androgen, enzalutamide. Transcriptomics revealed up-regulation of neurogenic and steroidogenic genes and down-regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, circadian pathways and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 host viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Time course analysis of the cell cycle in live cells revealed that enzalutamide induced a gradual transition into a reversible dormant state as shown here for the first time at the single cell level in the context of multi-cellular, 3D living organoids using the Fucci2BL fluorescent live cell cycle tracker system. We show here a new mechanism of castration resistance in which enzalutamide induced dormancy and novel basal-luminal-like cells in bone metastatic prostate cancer organoids. These PDX organoids can be used to develop therapies targeting dormant APDT-resistant cells and host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.

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