Japanese spiny lobsters (Panulirus japonicus) exhibiting white opaque abdominal muscle were found in Mie and Wakayama prefectures, in mid-Western Japan. Microscopically, two types of microsporidian spores, ovoid and rod-shaped, were observed infecting the muscle. Histologically, both types of spore were detected inside myofibers of the abdomen, appendages, and cardiac muscles and were often both observed in a single myofiber simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ovoid spores have villous projections on the surface, and that ovoid and rod-shaped spores have a polar filament with 12 coils and 6 to 8 coils respectively. Merogonic and sporogonic stages were observed around ovoid spores, but rarely around rod-shaped spores. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences obtained from both spore types were identical to each other, indicating that this microsporidian exhibits a clear spore dimorphism. Phylogenetic analysis based on the rDNA sequences indicates that this microsporidian is part of a clade consisting of the genera Ameson and Nadelspora, with the most closely related species being A. herrnkindi found in the Caribbean spiny lobster P. argus. Based on ultrastructural features, molecular phylogenetic data, host type and geographical differences among known species in these genera, the species found in whitened abdominal muscles of the Japanese spiny lobster is described as Ameson iseebi sp. nov. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.