Despite the critical need for lifelong treatment of inherited and genetic diseases, there are no developmental efforts for most such diseases due to their rarity. Recent progress in gene therapy, including the approvals of two products (Glybera and Strimvelis) that may provide patients with sustained effects, has shed light on the development of gene therapy products. Most gene therapy products are based on either adeno-associated virus-mediated in vivo gene transfer to target tissues or administration of ex vivo gene-transduced hematopoietic cells. In such circumstances, there is room for different approaches to provide clinicians with other therapeutic options through a variety of principles based on studies not only to gain an understanding of the pathological mechanisms of diseases, but also to understand the physiological functions of target tissues and cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene therapy-mediated enzyme replacement and introduce a different approach using adipocytes to enable lifelong treatment for intractable plasma protein deficiencies.