Nineteen multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strains were isolated from 19 patients suffering from infections probably caused by P. mirabilis. These strains were recovered from urine or other urogenital specimens of 16 inpatients and three outpatients with a hospitalization history in a urology ward of Funabashi Medical Center, from July 2001 to August 2002. These strains demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, and aztreonam, while they were highly susceptible to ceftazidime (MIC, ≤0.5 μg/ml). The resistance level of these strains to cefotaxime was decreased by the presence of clavulanic acid. Therefore, the strains were speculated to produce extended-spectrum class A β-lactamases. These strains were later found to carry blaCTX-M-2 genes by both PCR and sequencing analyses. The profiles of SmaI-digested genomic DNA of 19 isolates were distinguished into five different clusters by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis. Four of them, consisting of 18 isolates, were suggested to be a clonal expansion. These findings suggested that a nosocomial outbreak of infections by CTX-M-2-producing P. mirabilis had occurred in our medical center. Most patients suffered from urogenital malignancies with long-term catheterization. Cefazolin, cefoperazone-sulbactam, and/or levofloxacin were mostly administered to the patients, but these agents seemed ineffective for eradication of CTX-M-2 producers. Early recognition and rapid identification of colonizing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including CTX-M-2-producing P. mirabilis, would be the most effective measures to cope with further spread of this kind of hazardous microorganism in clinical environments.