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Normative data for middle-aged Brazilians in Verbal Fluency (animals and FAS), Trail Making Test (TMT) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT)

Authors
  • Carvalho, Guilherme Almeida1
  • Caramelli, Paulo2
  • 1 Rede Sarah de Hospitais de Reabilitação, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
  • 2 Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Publisher
Associação de Neurologia Cognitiva e do Comportamento
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
14
Issue
1
Pages
14–23
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1590/1980-57642020dn14-010003
PMID: 32206193
PMCID: PMC7077863
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Normative studies of neuropsychological tests were performed in Brazil in recent years. However, additional data are needed because of the heterogeneity of education of the Brazilian population. Objective: The present study provides normative data of executive function tests for middle-aged Brazilians and investigates the influence of age, sex, education and intelligence quotient (IQ) on performance in these tests. Methods: A total of 120 healthy staff and caregivers from a hospital were randomly selected and submitted to Fluency – animals and FAS, Trail Making Test (TMT) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT). They were divided into six groups of 20: two groups for age (45-54 and 55-64 years) and three groups for years of schooling (4-7; 8-11; 12+ years). Results: Normative data are presented in mean values and percentiles. Education influenced differences in the tests, except the CDT. Post hoc analyses revealed differences between the three educational levels on the TMT and FAS. Age differences emerged on the TMT and fluency letter F. Moderate correlation was found between schooling and results on TMT and Fluency. The correlations for IQ were similar. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for middle-aged Brazilians with four or more years of schooling in frequently used cognitive tests to assess executive functions. The results confirm the strong influence of education, even in the comparison between middle and higher levels.

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