ABSTRACT This paper aims to gather and discuss important information about nonylphenol, such as physical chemistry properties, toxicity and analytical methods in various matrices. As a degradation product of ethoxylated alkylphenols, nonylphenol presents a higher degree of reactivity than its precursor. Due to its harmful effects on the environment, use and production of nonylphenol has been banned in European Union countries, alongside their precursors. The guide on quality of drinking water (USEPA) recommends a maximum concentration of 28 µg L-1 for fresh water. In Brazil, there is no clear legislation containing values of maximum concentration of nonylphenol. Due to this lack of regulation, a continuous monitoring is necessary of this pollutant in environmental samples. This paper aims to encourage further studies on nonylphenol, seen as a critical environmental pollutant. For proper monitoring is necessary to have reliable analytical methods and easy to perform in routine analysis.