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Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis Definitely Working Out of the Rules

Authors
  • duban;, matthieu
Publication Date
Mar 07, 2022
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms10030577
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/2076-2607/10/3/577/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Nonribosomal peptides are microbial secondary metabolites exhibiting a tremendous structural diversity and a broad range of biological activities useful in the medical and agro-ecological fields. They are built up by huge multimodular enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases. These synthetases are organized in modules constituted of adenylation, thiolation, and condensation core domains. As such, each module governs, according to the collinearity rule, the incorporation of a monomer within the growing peptide. The release of the peptide from the assembly chain is finally performed by a terminal core thioesterase domain. Secondary domains with modifying catalytic activities such as epimerization or methylation are sometimes included in the assembly lines as supplementary domains. This assembly line structure is analyzed by bioinformatics tools to predict the sequence and structure of the final peptides according to the sequence of the corresponding synthetases. However, a constantly expanding literature unravels new examples of nonribosomal synthetases exhibiting very rare domains and noncanonical organizations of domains and modules, leading to several amazing strategies developed by microorganisms to synthesize nonribosomal peptides. In this review, through several examples, we aim at highlighting these noncanonical pathways in order for the readers to perceive their complexity.

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