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"Nonavailable" soil cadmium is bioavailable to snails: evidence from isotopic dilution experiments.

Authors
  • Scheifler, Renaud
  • Schwartz, Christophe
  • Echevarria, Guillaume
  • DE Vaufleury, Annette
  • Badot, Pierre-Marie
  • Morel, Jean-Louis
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Science & Technology
Publisher
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2003
Volume
37
Issue
1
Pages
81–86
Identifiers
PMID: 12542294
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Isotopic dilution techniques were initially used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace metals contained in soils to plants, i.e., the phytoavailability. Here, we use for the first time an isotopic technique to evaluate the zooavailability of cadmium (Cd), i.e., the bioavailability to an animal organism. A terrestrial invertebrate, the snail Helix aspersa, was exposed for 14 days to a polluted soil that was spiked with 109Cd. Isotopic composition of snail tissues was then determined, allowing the computing of the L value, which can be considered as a biological estimate of the bioavailable Cd pool in the soil. It showed that the bioavailable pool of Cd to H. aspersa represented 58% of the total soil Cd. The Evalue, a chemical estimate of the soil Cd labile pool, was calculated with short-term isotopic exchange kinetics experiments and a time-dependent model describing the isotopic exchange over time. The E(14 days) value indicated that the labile soil Cd pool represented 49.6% of the total soil Cd. The L value was significantly higher than the E value, showing that snails accessed the nonlabile soil Cd pool, generally considered as nonbioavailable. The nonlabile pool contributed for 16% to the total Cd accumulated by snails. These results showed that the uptake of Cd in the nonlabile pool by soil organisms could be important and should be considered in risk assessment procedures for metal polluted soils.

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