Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common liver disorder worldwide mainly attributed to the epidemic spread of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it is considered a benign disease, NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most data regarding the epidemiology of NAFLD-related HCC are derived from cohort and population studies and show that its incidence is increasing as well as it is likely to emerge as the leading indication for liver transplantation, especially in the Western World. Although cirrhosis constitutes the main risk factor for HCC development, in patients with NAFLD, HCC can arise in the absence of cirrhosis, indicating specific carcinogenic molecular pathways. Since NAFLD as an underlying liver disease for HCC is often underdiagnosed due to lack of sufficient surveillance in this population, NAFLD-HCC patients are at advanced HCC stage at the time of diagnosis making the management of those patients clinically challenging and affecting their prognostic outcomes. In this current review, we summarize the latest literature on the epidemiology, other than liver cirrhosis-pathogenesis, risk factors and prognosis of NAFLD-HCC patients. Finally, we emphasize the prevention of the development of NAFLD-associated HCC and we provide some insight into the open questions and issues regarding the appropriate surveillance policies for those patients.