peer reviewed / Elevated free fatty acid concentrations are known to decrease insulin-mediated glucose uptake, glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. In order to determine whether free fatty acids inhibit glycogen synthesis at the level of liver cells, the effects of an infusion of lipids on carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in healthy subjects during a two-step (16.7 and 33.4 mumol/(kg.min) 13C-fructose infusion. Fructose infusion dose-dependently stimulated fructose (measured from 13CO2 production) and net carbohydrate oxidation (measured with indirect calorimetry). It also stimulated systemic 13C glucose appearance, indicating a dose-dependent stimulation of gluconeogenesis. Net glucose output (measured with 6,6 2H glucose) was however not altered. Lipid infusion significantly reduced fructose oxidation (measured from 13CO2 production) at both rates of fructose infusion, but did not alter plasma fructose or lactate concentrations, nor plasma 13C glucose appearance or net glucose production. Non oxidative fructose disposal was increased by 31% (p < 0.05) at the lowest, and by 18% (p < 0.01) at the highest infusion rate. Since nonoxidative fructose disposal corresponds mainly to liver glycogen deposition, these results suggest that lipid infusion increased hepatic glycogen synthesis, and hence that hepatic glycogen synthase is not inhibited by fatty acids.