Conventional approaches to allogeneic stem cell transplantation have used toxic high-dose conditioning therapy in attempts to eradicate underlying diseases and achieve allogeneic engraftment. Preclinical studies and clinical observations have shown that to achieve engraftment conditioning regimens could be markedly reduced in intensity with reduction in treatment toxicities. The use of potent pre- and postgrafting immunosuppression facilitated stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism in a preclinical canine model. The initial clinical experiences with attenuated conditioning regimens have shown promise as a modality to achieve human stem cell transplantation with an improved safety profile. This may allow offering potentially curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to a more representative patient population (older and sicker) who are currently not eligible for such therapy. Obtaining a state of mixed hematopoietic chimerism could prove curative of the disease phenotype of various nonmalignant disturbances of the hematopoietic and immune systems. On the other hand, patients with hematopoietic malignancy will likely require conversion to full donor hematopoeisis by virtue of graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions directed against both recipient hematopoiesis and underlying malignancy. The infusion of additional donor lymphocytes has been proposed by many groups to augment graft versus tumor responses, but most likely more specific strategies will need to be developed to improve efficacy and avoid nonspecific GVH reactions.