Calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) play an important role for our understanding of early metazoan evolution, since several molecular studies suggested their closer relationship to Eumetazoa than to the other two sponge 'classes,' Demospongiae and Hexactinellida. The division of Calcarea into the subtaxa Calcinea and Calcaronea is well established by now, but their internal relationships remain largely unresolved. Here, we estimate phylogenetic relationships within Calcarea in a Bayesian framework, using full-length 18S and partial 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Both genes were analyzed separately and in combination and were further partitioned by stem and loop regions, the former being modelled to take non-independence of paired sites into account. By substantially increasing taxon sampling, we show that most of the traditionally recognized supraspecific taxa within Calcinea and Calcaronea are not monophyletic, challenging the existing classification system, while monophyly of Calcinea and Calcaronea is again highly supported.