The potent rat-liver mitogen 4-acetylaminofluorene (4AAF) is shown here to provide an effective replacement for the surgical procedure of 2/3 partial hepatectomy (2/3PH) in the in vivo rat-liver micronucleus assay described by Tates and his colleagues. This protocol modification enables the assay to be conducted on a routine basis. Control observations for both 2/3PH and 4AAF-treated rats are presented, together with evidence indicating 4AAF itself to be without activity in the assay, irrespective of the mitogenic stimulus. The activities of the rat carcinogens DMN, 2AAF, DMH and 6BT, and of the non-carcinogens 4AAF and 4N are demonstrated. Recommendations for the conduct of the modified assay are made.