Nocturia is among the most common and bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but there is no clear consensus on how to identify and manage this symptom in the neurological population. To systematically review the literature about nocturia in neurological patients. Studies were identified by electronic search of Cochrane and Medline databases. The studies were included if their participants had acquired neurological pathology among multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and reported data on the epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis, or treatment of nocturia. An independent extraction of the articles was performed by two authors using predetermined datasets, including quality-of-study indicators. A total of 132 studies were included; 46 evaluated the epidemiology of nocturia, 28 the possible aetiologies, 10 the diagnostic tools, and 60 the treatments. Nocturia prevalence ranged from 15% to 96% depending on the pathology and definition used. It was one of the most frequently reported LUTS in PD and stroke patients. Several validated questionnaires were found to screen for nocturia in this population. Causalities were numerous: LUT, renal, sleep, cardiovascular dysfunctions, etc. Treatments targeted these mechanisms, with an overall risk of bias assessed as high or serious. The highest level of evidence was seen in MS patients: pelvic floor muscle training, cannabinoids, and desmopressin were effective, but not melatonin. In stroke patients, transcutaneous sacral and transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (TTNS) improved nocturia; in PD patients, TTNS, solifenacin, and rotigotine did not. Nocturia is highly prevalent in patients with neurological disorders. Causalities and treatments are not different from the general population, but are poorly studied in neurological patients. In this report, we looked at the published studies about nocturia-the fact of waking to void during the hours of sleep-in patients with neurological diseases. We found that nocturia is very frequent in this population, that the causes are the same as in the general population but may be combined, and that treatments are also the same but have an overall weak level of evidence. We conclude that more research is needed on this topic. Copyright © 2020 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.