Nocturia is generally considered a urological condition, but may be an indicator of cardiovascular disease, as prior studies have found associations with cardiovascular risk factors as well as clinical and subclinical markers of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to explore potential associations between nocturia and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). We analyzed 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived AAC data and concurrent interview data on kidney conditions from respondents aged 40-80 years. AAC was defined as a score >= 1 on the 24-point semi-quantitative AAC scale. Nocturia was defined as an average of >= 2 voids per night. Three incremental multivariate logistic regression models controlling for (1) age, (2) sex, race, and BMI, and (3) hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking history were used to determine whether nocturia predicted AAC. These models were and modified to exclude age and/or sex to perform age- and/or sex-specific sub-analyses, respectively. Complete data were available from 2,945 participants (29.1% AAC, 31.4% nocturia). On univariate analysis, the association between nocturia and AAC was significant in women (OR 1.77 [95% CI 1.37-2.29], p < 0.001), but not in men (1.14 [0.74-1.76], p = 0.531). Multivariate analysis showed nocturia was an independent predictor of AAC in women in Models I-II (ORs 1.49-1.58, p <= 0.032) but not Model III (1.37 [0.90-2.09], p = 0.133). Stratification by age revealed a strong univariate association among women aged 50-59 (3.88 [1.97-7.61], p < 0.001), which persisted across all multivariate models (ORs 4.05-4.41, p <= 0.001). The presence of nocturia is an important clue of AAC in women, especially those middle-aged.