A Gram-positive and acid-fast filamentous bacterium (OFN 02.72(T)) was isolated from a bronchial aspirate from a 53-year-old patient. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Nocardia, and the phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that the strain differed from all previously described Nocardia species. Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (encoding the 65 kDa heat-shock protein) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes confirmed that this isolate is unique. The most closely related type strains were Nocardia alba YIM 30243(T) (=DSM 44684(T)) and Nocardia jejuensis N3-2(T) (=JCM 13281(T)) (with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3 and 97.2 %, respectively). On the basis of this polyphasic study, strain OFN 02.72(T) represents a novel species within the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia ninae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN 02.72(T) (=CIP 108955(T)=DSM 44978(T)).