Improvement of nutrient use efficiency is a major goal for several crop plants, especially Brassica napus. Indeed, the low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in this crop results in negative economic and ecological consequences. The low NUE of oilseed rape is mainly due to low remobilization of nitrogen from vegetative parts to growing organs. Remobilization of leaf nitrogen takes place during senescence, a process known to strongly modify cell and tissue structure. This study focused on the impact of moderate N depletion, expected to induce 30 % reduction of seed yield, on these structural modifications. Two genotypes (Aviso and Express) were studied, with different tolerance of nitrogen depletion, evaluated through seed yield and dry mass production. Structural modifications of leaf cells and tissues were investigated through NMR relaxometry and light microscopy. Lower tolerance of N depletion was associated with higher impact on senescence associated structural modification pattern. The link between leaf structure modifications and nutrient remobilization is discussed. It is proposed that leaf structure monitoring during senescence through NMR device could be developed to select genotypes with high NUE.