Locusts lay their eggs by digging into a substrate using rhythmic opening and closing movements of ovipositor valves at the end of the abdomen. The digging rhythm is inhibited by chemosensory stimulation of chemoreceptors on the valves. Nitric oxide (NO) modulated the effects of chemosensory stimulation on the rhythm. Stimulation with either sucrose or sodium chloride (NaCl) stopped the digging rhythm, whereas simultaneous bath application of the NO inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), increased the duration for which the digging rhythm stopped. Increasing NO levels caused a significant reduction in the cessation of the rhythm in response to the same 2 chemicals. Bath applying cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the soluble guanylate inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and the generic protein kinase inhibitor H-7 had no effect on the duration for which the rhythm stopped in response to NaCl stimulation. Conversely, bath application of cGMP and ODQ resulted in a significant decrease and increase, respectively, in the duration for which the digging rhythm stopped when stimulated with sucrose. Moreover, bath application of the selective protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor KT-5823 also resulted in a significant increase in the duration of cessation of the rhythm when stimulated with sucrose. Results suggest that NO modulates the behavioral responses to NaCl via a cGMP/PKG-independent pathway while modulating the responses to sucrose via a NO-cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway.