Nipple excised and areola retained after total mastectomy (NEAT)

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Nipple excised and areola retained after total mastectomy (NEAT)

Publisher
The Royal Society of Medicine
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2001
Source
PMC
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • Geography
  • Medicine
License
Unknown

Abstract

Breast Cancer and the Environment?QUESTIONS aNd aNSwErSWhat does it mean to say 1 in 8 women will get breast cancer? Research-ers have been studying breast cancer for decades. Why don’t we know more about how to prevent it? Should I avoid mam-mograms? What does it mean when I read that something increases risk for breast cancer by 20 percent? How can drinking alcohol be good for the heart and also cause breast cancer? Is it safe to drink water out of a plastic bottle? What can I do to re-duce my risk of develop-ing breast cancer? What does it mean to say 1 in In your lifetime, you probably will know several people with breast cancer; an estimated 230,480 women in the United States found out they had the disease in 2011. Throughout their lives, women have experiences and make decisions that can influence their chances of getting breast cancer. We have little control over some of these risk factors. For example, girls who begin menstruating younger than their friends or women who are older at menopause are more likely to develop breast cancer. But sometimes we can make choices – good or bad – that affect our risk of getting breast cancer. Avoiding unnecessary or inappropriate exposure to radiation, limiting how much alcohol you drink, avoiding certain kinds of hormone therapy, and minimizing weight gain are steps that might reduce risks for some women. In other cases, it is harder to know what to do. We don’t yet know enough about many of the chemicals we encounter to figure out if they are connected to breast cancer. Many people are concerned that environmental factors are increasing the risk of breast cancer. In a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) looked at the available evidence and found some answers and many more questions. Obesity, alcohol consumption, and some medical treatments raise the risk of breast cancer at least a little. For other factors, the evidence is not that easy to come by, and sometimes the answers are not as clear as we

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