We have retrospectively examined the clinical outcomes of the 9 patients who survived for more than 10 years in our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) program. Six were men and 3 women aged 50.8 +/- (SD) 11.5 years. Three had been previously treated by hemodialysis. None of them had diabetes or neoplasms, 1 had liver cirrhosis, 3 had ischemic cardiopathy, 1 had peripheral artery disease, and all were hypertensive. The hospitalization rate ranged from 0 to 4.5 days/patient/year, the peritonitis rate was one episode every 57 months. Six patients had no peritonitis during the first 10 years of treatment. Exit-site episodes were one every 46.7 patient months. Six peritoneal catheters were removed from 4 patients. KT/V and peritoneal permeability, assessed by the peritoneal equilibration test, were within the normal range in the majority of the patients. Five patients died between the 121st and the 149th month, and 4 are still alive. Three of them are working. These results show that CAPD can be effective, peritoneal catheters can survive, and some patients can be free from peritonitis episodes for more than 10 years. After the 10-year on CAPD, the survival is poor, and the morbidity is high.