A new type of staphylococcal exfoliative toxin (sET) was isolated from the culture filtrate of a Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated from a horse with skin infection including phlegmon. The new sET was purified by precipitation with 80% saturated ammonium sulfate, column chromatography on DEAE-cellulofine A-500, gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5% polyacrylamide). The new sET elicited general exfoliation of the epidermis with the so-called Nikolsky sign when inoculated into both 3-day-old mice and 1-day-old chicks, whereas sETA and sETB from human strains of S. aureus caused exfoliation in a 3-day-old mouse alone and shET from a porcine strain of Staphylococcus hyicus caused exfoliation in 1-day-old chicks alone. Intraepidermal splitting was observed at the granular layer of the epidermis of mice inoculated with the new sET as well as those inoculated with sETA. Exfoliation at the germinative layer of the epidermis was also observed in the chicks inoculated with the new sET as well as those inoculated with shET. The new sET was serologically different from sETA, sETB, and shET and showed the same molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was thermolabile and lost its toxicity after being heated at 60 degrees C for 15 min. We propose that the new sET be designated as sETC.