Ocular drug delivery has become an increasingly important field of research especially when treating posterior segment diseases of the eye, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, posterior uveitis and retinitis. These diseases are the leading causes of vision loss in developed countries which require repeated long-term administration of therapeutic agents. New drugs for the medication of the posterior ocular segment have emerged, but most drugs are delivered by repeated intravitreal injections associated with ocular complications. Advances in ocular drug delivery system research are expected to provide new tools for the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, providing improved drug penetration, prolonged action, higher efficacy, improved safety and less invasive administration, resulting in higher patient compliance. This review provides an insight into the recent progress and trends in ocular drug delivery systems for treating posterior eye segment diseases, with an emphasis on transscleral iontophoresis.